Oct 6, 2015
Russian Language Questionnaire
Is available online now. Dr. Ekaterina Levko of St. Petersburg State University and Dr. Gennady G. Knyazev of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences participated in the Russian translation and will share the collected data for academic research.

Dec 13, 2012
Multilingual Surveys
Investigations of humor did not find conclusive links with personality. The main purpose of the new surveys is to add a new calculation to the investigations.

Oct 5, 2012
Finalist at AI Contest
The George and Mary software is a finalist at the British Computer Society's artificial intelligence contest, scheduled to take place in London on Oct. 5, 2012.

Jan 5, 2010
U.S. Patent #7,644,060
Its official. U.S. software patent covering Artificial Psychology Dialog Player with Age Simulation is granted today.

1. What is George and Mary?

2. What is a dialog player?

3. What sets GaM apart?

4. Why four drives?

5. Where else can you find similar models?

6. What makes a GaM personality?

7. What is the meaning of the categories of the drives?

8. What is interpretation?

9. Who were the real George and Mary?

10. What's next?



1. What is George and Mary?

George and Mary (GaM) is a dialog player with versatile editing tools. The two artificial personalities of GaM are based on a hypothetical model of four motivation scales or drives; The active drive gets a reinforcement with every line from the opposite personality, the heightened state of the drive decays slowly to a steady state or to the next reinforcement. As the line prompts come faster the drive state rise higher with reinforcements.

2. What is a Dialog Player?

A dialog player is a software application playing meaningful sentences in text and/or multimedia. The sentences are selected from repertoires according to certain rules.
A chatterbot is such an application, although strictly speaking it is a Monolog Player, since the user writes or speaks a sentence and the chatterbot answers with a matching response. Generally, the matching rules and categories do not change with the passing of time, and the categories or divisions of the repertoires can be expanded to virtually no bounds.
In contrast, the artificial personalities of George and Mary pick matching lines in a dynamic fashion, because the passing of time changes the internal states of the target personality. And there are only four drives.

3. What sets GaM apart?

The artificial personalities of GaM emphasize motivation (the drives) rather than cognition (the topics). GaM is not based on ALICE technology and is not designed to be a candidate for the Turing test. GaM's behavior is more predictable than a typical chatterbot; designed for commercial viability.
The basic unit of meaning is by necessity the sentence, not the word nor the phoneme, because generally only a sentences is sufficient to convey a motivation.

4. Why four drives?

According to Boolean logic, a yes-or-no question has four logical answers: Yes, No, I don't know, and I don't care. Likewise, a driven live organism subjected to an arbitrary stimulus may have four types of responses: positive, negative, indeterminate but relevant and irrelevant. This suggested that an arbitrary stimulus to any intelligent organism should have four qualitatively distinct types of responses. Reflecting this rationale, the artificial personalities of George and Mary are made of four drives: the Emotion, Feeding, SocioSex and Parenting drives. Each drive is an axis, divided into discreet categories such as +2, +1, 0, -1 and -2. The total count of categories is a matter of psychological interpretation, in this version of GaM it is eight for the Emotion and six each for Feeding, SocioSex and Parenting, so that each personality has 32 categories.

5. Where else can you find similar models?

A source of inspiration was the well known ethologist Konrad Lorenz, who saw animal drives fit into four or five groups, with a notable exception; aggression was an independent drive whereas here it doesn't exist outside the context of the four drives. In 1981 Paul Fredric Brain divided aggression into four categories: predatory, self-defensive, parental-defensive and social conflict. Brain's definitions of the four categories are similar to GaM's but only covered aggression. Later on, Rod Martin categorized humor into four types: Affiliative, Self-Enhancing, Aggressive, and Self-Defeating. Martin's taxonomy has many similarities with GaM's but significant differences too.

6. What makes a GaM personality?

The model of behavior is based on animal priming. Priming occurs when the presence of an initial stimulus increases the likelihood of a stronger response to subsequent stimuli. The personalities of George and Mary's are identified by time-related or dynamic and time-independent or static parts. The four drives and their settings are the dynamic part and the repertoires are the static part. The dynamic settings include the trigger size, the time constant for each of the drives and the quiescent constant for each of the drives. For the sake of simplicity, the trigger size is made the same irrespective of which drive, state or sentence is activated. In principle, the trigger should be related to the meaning of the sentence and the state of the sender and receiver.

7. What is the meaning of the categories of the drives?

The categories of the drives define states of motivation. Motivations, or the drives, define one factor of behavior. There are other internal and external factors such as sensory-motor and cognitive factors. GaM demonstrates motivational contributions in a dialog player.

8. What is Interpretation?

Interpretation is the process of defining the motivational roots of sentences or behaviors. Here, it is the process of classifying a sentence down to one or more categories among the four drives and two divides. The drives are motivational dimensions of internal context. Each context is defined by a focus or the object of protection, the focus of the Emotion is the personality's own existence. Feeding focuses on turf and resources, Sociosex on mates and society, and Parenting on offspring and the environment beyond the immediate senses. Each drive can be internalized or externalized, for example fear internalizes while aggression externalizes threats. Humor's four basic types are also subjected to the internalized/externalized divide, so that George externalizes while Mary internalizes in the context of humor.

9. Who were the real George and Mary?

George Boole was an Irish mathematician who lived in the nineteenth century; he invented Boolean algebra, the foundation of modern computing. Boolean logic is the reasoning behind his algebra, in his book The Laws of Thought he suggested a psychological model of reasoning based on his logic. GaM uses the Boolean model to justify the limitation of the drives to four.?
The characters of GaM were inspired by the story of George Boole's untimely death in 1864 while he was in the care of his wife Mary Everest. George walked home after a busy day teaching at Cork College, Ireland when it started to rain. It was a long walk so George caught a cold and stayed at home. Mary believed in curing ailments using their own causes, so if George got sick from getting wet then water would cure him. Mary treated George by drenching him with buckets of water, which caused the ultimate death of the mathematical genius by pneumonia.

10. What's next?

GaM Started out as a demonstration to show the differences between motivation and cognition. The emphasis on motivation led to the present structure, where there are two personalities and cognition has no influence over the trigger size or degree of reinforcement. The architecture of two personalities lends itself to be used as a model of human psychology, where one personality acts as the "ego" and the other as the model of the world or the artificial imagination. The "ego" would talk to an outside personality whose image is stored in the second artificial imagination, this allows for continuous updates of what is usual and expected from the outside, real personality. The next step, if any, is to add cognition mechanism on top of the artificial imagination to allow for sentence matching.

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